Typical ranges for different objects#

In Table 8 and Table 9 the visibility for a range of objects with common shapes (cylinder, plate, etc.) and of varying reflectivity, i.e. materials, is shown. Objects are at normal incidence and the governing system parameters are \(\sigma\), \(\gamma\), and C, as shown in Eq. 13. The envelope service was used to collect the data with Profile 2. The object counts as distinguishable from the noise with a SNR > 10 dB (Y), barely visible between 5 dB and 10 dB (-) and not visible with a SNR < 5 dB (N). The range can be further increased based on the configuration of the sensor, as described in Configuration overview and by optimizing the physical integration, as will be described in Physical integration. As an example for such an optimization Table 8 shows results with an added radar Fresnel lens.

Table 8 Typical ranges using the envelope service and Profile 2, without radar lens.#

Object

0.5 m

1 m

2 m

5 m

7 m

Corner reflector (a = 4 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Planar water surface

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Disc (r = 4 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Cu Plate (10x10 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

PET plastic Plate (10x10 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Wood Plate (10x10 cm)

Y

Y

N

N

Cardboard Plate (10x10 cm)

Y

Y

Y

N

N

Al Cylinder (h = 30, r = 2 cm)

Y

Y

N

N

Cu Cylinder (h = 12, r = 1.6 cm)

Y

Y

Y

N

N

PP plastic Cylinder (h = 12, r = 1.6 cm)

Y

N

N

N

N

Leg

Y

Y

N

N

Hand (front)

Y

Y

N

N

N

Torso (front)

Y

Y

Y

N

N

Head

Y

Y

N

N

N

Glass with water (h = 8.5, r = 2.7 cm)

Y

Y

N

N

N

PET Bottle with water (h = 14, r = 4.2 cm)

Y

Y

N

N

N

Football

Y

Y

N

N

N

Table 9 Typical ranges using the envelope service and Profile 2, with 7 dB radar lens.#

Object

0.5 m

1 m

2 m

5 m

7 m

Corner reflector (a = 4 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Planar water surface

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Disc (r = 4 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Cu Plate (10x10 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

PET plastic Plate (10x10 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Wood Plate (10x10 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Cardboard Plate (10x10 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Al Cylinder (h = 30, r = 2 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Cu Cylinder (h = 12, r = 1.6 cm)

Y

Y

Y

Y

PP plastic Cylinder (h = 12, r = 1.6 cm)

Y

Y

Y

N

N

Leg

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Hand (front)

Y

Y

Y

N

N

Torso (front)

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Head

Y

Y

Y

N

Glass with water (h = 8.5, r = 2.7 cm)

Y

Y

Y

N

PET Bottle with water (h = 14, r = 4.2 cm)

Y

Y

Y

N

N

Football

Y

Y

Y

N

N